使用certbot更新SSL证书遇到的一些错误及其原因、应对方法

     0评论

certbot是最流行的获取、更新和管理Let's Encrypt证书的工具,本文记录了使用certbot更新SSl证书时常遇见的一些错误和解决办法,并在文末附上certbot的官方手册供查询。

尝试用renew命令自动更新需要手动更新的证书

以下的错误信息中包含3个域名,vps123.top、example.com、shili.com,其中前两个配置了主域名证书和通配符证书,第三个只配置了主域名证书。申请这些证书时使用了certonly指令,相关配置都是后面手动操作的,更新时就不能使用renew指令了,因为这是尝试使用webserver插件自动更新。

[email protected]:~$ sudo certbot renew Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/vps123.top.conf ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cert is due for renewal, auto-renewing... Error running command ['apache2ctl', '-t', '-D', 'DUMP_INCLUDES'] for runtime parameters! Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer None Running pre-hook command: systemctl stop apache2 Attempting to renew cert (vps123.top) from /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/vps123.top.conf produced an unexpected error: [Errno 12] Cannot allocate memory. Skipping. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/example.com-0001.conf ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cert not yet due for renewal Could not choose appropriate plugin for updaters: The manual plugin is not working; there may be problems with your existing configuration. The error was: PluginError('An authentication script must be provided with --manual-auth-hook when using the manual plugin non-interactively.',) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/vps123.top-0001.conf ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cert not yet due for renewal Could not choose appropriate plugin for updaters: The manual plugin is not working; there may be problems with your existing configuration. The error was: PluginError('An authentication script must be provided with --manual-auth-hook when using the manual plugin non-interactively.',) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/example.com.conf ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cert not yet due for renewal Could not choose appropriate plugin for updaters: The manual plugin is not working; there may be problems with your existing configuration. The error was: PluginError('An authentication script must be provided with --manual-auth-hook when using the manual plugin non-interactively.',) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/shili.com.conf ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cert is due for renewal, auto-renewing... Unable to run the command: apache2ctl configtest Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer None Running pre-hook command: apachectl -k stop Attempting to renew cert (shili.com) from /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/shili.com.conf produced an unexpected error: [Errno 12] Cannot allocate memory. Skipping. All renewal attempts failed. The following certs could not be renewed: /etc/letsencrypt/live/vps123.top/fullchain.pem (failure) /etc/letsencrypt/live/shili.com/fullchain.pem (failure) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The following certs are not due for renewal yet: /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com-0001/fullchain.pem expires on 2018-08-23 (skipped) /etc/letsencrypt/live/vps123.top-0001/fullchain.pem expires on 2018-08-19 (skipped) /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com/fullchain.pem expires on 2018-08-23 (skipped) All renewal attempts failed. The following certs could not be renewed: /etc/letsencrypt/live/vps123.top/fullchain.pem (failure) /etc/letsencrypt/live/shili.com/fullchain.pem (failure) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 renew failure(s), 0 parse failure(s)

未提供明确指令

只使用certbot命令,会尝试使用自动配置插件,因为尝试操作webserver碰到问题,不能进一步处理。

[email protected]:~$ sudo certbot Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log Error running command ['apache2ctl', '-t', '-D', 'DUMP_INCLUDES'] for runtime parameters! Certbot doesn't know how to automatically configure the web server on this system. However, it can still get a certificate for you. Please run "certbot certonly" to do so. You'll need to manually configure your web server to use the resulting certificate.

未明确声明使用-a manual参数

因为未明确声明使用手动插件,certbot尝试使用自动插件,但因为webserver的问题,不能自动选择如何与ACME CA的服务器进行交互验证。[email protected]:~$ sudo certbot certonly Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log Error running command ['apache2ctl', '-t', '-D', 'DUMP_INCLUDES'] for runtime parameters! How would you like to authenticate with the ACME CA? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1: Apache Web Server plugin - Beta (apache) [Misconfigured] 2: Spin up a temporary webserver (standalone) 3: Place files in webroot directory (webroot) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Select the appropriate number [1-3] then [enter] (press 'c' to cancel): c Could not choose appropriate plugin: authenticator could not be determined or is not installed authenticator could not be determined or is not installed

PluginError

如果renew命令过程遇到如下报错,说明自动插件无法处理更新,需要手动更新。

Cert is due for renewal, auto-renewing... Could not choose appropriate plugin: The manual plugin is not working; there may be problems with your existing configuration. The error was: PluginError('An authentication script must be provided with --manual-auth-hook when using the manual plugin non-interactively.',) Attempting to renew cert (blog.vps123.top) from /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/blog.vps123.top.conf produced an unexpected error: The manual plugin is not working; there may be problems with your existing configuration. The error was: PluginError('An authentication script must be provided with --manual-auth-hook when using the manual plugin non-interactively.',). Skipping.

通过如下命令手动进行域名所有权的认证:

certbot certonly --debug --force-renew -a manual -d vps123.top certbot certonly --debug -a manual -d haotizi.info

正确的操作

这里是更新非通配符域名时的操作,需要放置验证文件保证可以访问。

[email protected]:~$ sudo certbot certonly --debug -a manual -d vps123.top Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log Plugins selected: Authenticator manual, Installer None Cert is due for renewal, auto-renewing... Renewing an existing certificate Performing the following challenges: http-01 challenge for vps123.top ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- NOTE: The IP of this machine will be publicly logged as having requested this certificate. If you're running certbot in manual mode on a machine that is not your server, please ensure you're okay with that. Are you OK with your IP being logged? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (Y)es/(N)o: y ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Create a file containing just this data: 6UAfmR058CVvMK6AaK1VMspp5JCWCYl1B29dVebQsrs.sdRUcVZHI3OWzexR1oBcHPF6CcZDvzyzFJJwFJPIx3k And make it available on your web server at this URL: http://vps123.top/.well-known/acme-challenge/6UAfmR058CVvMK6AaK1VMspp5JCWCYl1B29dVebQsrs ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Press Enter to Continue Waiting for verification... Cleaning up challenges IMPORTANT NOTES: - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/vps123.top/fullchain.pem Your key file has been saved at: /etc/letsencrypt/live/vps123.top/privkey.pem Your cert will expire on 2018-10-07. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again. To non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run "certbot renew" - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by: Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: https://letsencrypt.org/donate Donating to EFF: https://eff.org/donate-le

了解证书的组织和存放方式

每个域名一个目录,存放在/etc/letsencrypt/的archive和live下,archive下是实体文件,以编号区分,获取新证书后,旧的证书不会删除;live下是指向archive目录下最新证书的软链接。如果你手动在webserver的配置文件中配置好了live的路径,即使后面更新了证书,也不需要再更新webserver的证书路径了,因为live下的软链接会一直指向最新的有效证书。

[email protected]:~$ sudo ls /etc/letsencrypt/archive/ shili.com vps123.top vps123.top-0001 example.com example.com-0001 [email protected]:~$ sudo ls -l /etc/letsencrypt/archive/vps123.top total 32 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2143 Apr 16 22:16 cert1.pem -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2139 Jul 9 22:43 cert2.pem -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1647 Apr 16 22:16 chain1.pem -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1647 Jul 9 22:43 chain2.pem -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3790 Apr 16 22:16 fullchain1.pem -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 3786 Jul 9 22:43 fullchain2.pem -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1704 Apr 16 22:16 privkey1.pem -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1704 Jul 9 22:43 privkey2.pem [email protected]:~$ sudo ls -l /etc/letsencrypt/live/vps123.top total 4 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 34 Jul 9 22:43 cert.pem -> ../../archive/vps123.top/cert2.pem lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 35 Jul 9 22:43 chain.pem -> ../../archive/vps123.top/chain2.pem lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 39 Jul 9 22:43 fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/vps123.top/fullchain2.pem lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 37 Jul 9 22:43 privkey.pem -> ../../archive/vps123.top/privkey2.pem -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 543 Apr 16 22:16 README

certbot的使用说明

[email protected]:~$ certbot --help usage: certbot [SUBCOMMAND] [options] [-d DOMAIN] [-d DOMAIN] ... Certbot can obtain and install HTTPS/TLS/SSL certificates. By default, it will attempt to use a webserver both for obtaining and installing the certificate. certbot: error: unrecognized arguments: --hlp [email protected]:~$ certbot --help ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- certbot [SUBCOMMAND] [options] [-d DOMAIN] [-d DOMAIN] ... Certbot can obtain and install HTTPS/TLS/SSL certificates. By default, it will attempt to use a webserver both for obtaining and installing the certificate. The most common SUBCOMMANDS and flags are: obtain, install, and renew certificates: (default) run Obtain & install a certificate in your current webserver certonly Obtain or renew a certificate, but do not install it renew Renew all previously obtained certificates that are near expiry enhance Add security enhancements to your existing configuration -d DOMAINS Comma-separated list of domains to obtain a certificate for --apache Use the Apache plugin for authentication & installation --standalone Run a standalone webserver for authentication (the certbot nginx plugin is not installed) --webroot Place files in a server's webroot folder for authentication --manual Obtain certificates interactively, or using shell script hooks -n Run non-interactively --test-cert Obtain a test certificate from a staging server --dry-run Test "renew" or "certonly" without saving any certificates to disk manage certificates: certificates Display information about certificates you have from Certbot revoke Revoke a certificate (supply --cert-path) delete Delete a certificate manage your account with Let's Encrypt: register Create a Let's Encrypt ACME account --agree-tos Agree to the ACME server's Subscriber Agreement -m EMAIL Email address for important account notifications More detailed help: -h, --help [TOPIC] print this message, or detailed help on a topic; the available TOPICS are: all, automation, commands, paths, security, testing, or any of the subcommands or plugins (certonly, renew, install, register, nginx, apache, standalone, webroot, etc.) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

certbot的man page

以下是man certbot的内容,供查询学习。

[email protected]:~$ man certbot Certbot command-line options Certbot supports a lot of command line options. Here’s the full list, from certbot --help all: usage: certbot [SUBCOMMAND] [options] [-d DOMAIN] [-d DOMAIN] ... Certbot can obtain and install HTTPS/TLS/SSL certificates. By default, it will attempt to use a webserver both for obtaining and installing the certificate. The most common SUBCOMMANDS and flags are: obtain, install, and renew certificates: (default) run Obtain & install a certificate in your current webserver certonly Obtain or renew a certificate, but do not install it renew Renew all previously obtained certificates that are near expiry enhance Add security enhancements to your existing configuration -d DOMAINS Comma-separated list of domains to obtain a certificate for --apache Use the Apache plugin for authentication & installation --standalone Run a standalone webserver for authentication --nginx Use the Nginx plugin for authentication & installation --webroot Place files in a server's webroot folder for authentication --manual Obtain certificates interactively, or using shell script hooks -n Run non-interactively --test-cert Obtain a test certificate from a staging server --dry-run Test "renew" or "certonly" without saving any certificates to disk manage certificates: certificates Display information about certificates you have from Certbot revoke Revoke a certificate (supply --cert-path) delete Delete a certificate manage your account with Let's Encrypt: register Create a Let's Encrypt ACME account --agree-tos Agree to the ACME server's Subscriber Agreement -m EMAIL Email address for important account notifications optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -c CONFIG_FILE, --config CONFIG_FILE path to config file (default: /etc/letsencrypt/cli.ini and ~/.config/letsencrypt/cli.ini) -v, --verbose This flag can be used multiple times to incrementally increase the verbosity of output, e.g. -vvv. (default: -2) --max-log-backups MAX_LOG_BACKUPS Specifies the maximum number of backup logs that should be kept by Certbot's built in log rotation. Setting this flag to 0 disables log rotation entirely, causing Certbot to always append to the same log file. (default: 1000) -n, --non-interactive, --noninteractive Run without ever asking for user input. This may require additional command line flags; the client will try to explain which ones are required if it finds one missing (default: False) --force-interactive Force Certbot to be interactive even if it detects it's not being run in a terminal. This flag cannot be used with the renew subcommand. (default: False) -d DOMAIN, --domains DOMAIN, --domain DOMAIN Domain names to apply. For multiple domains you can use multiple -d flags or enter a comma separated list of domains as a parameter. The first domain provided will be the subject CN of the certificate, and all domains will be Subject Alternative Names on the certificate. The first domain will also be used in some software user interfaces and as the file paths for the certificate and related material unless otherwise specified or you already have a certificate with the same name. In the case of a name collision it will append a number like 0001 to the file path name. (default: Ask) --cert-name CERTNAME Certificate name to apply. This name is used by Certbot for housekeeping and in file paths; it doesn't affect the content of the certificate itself. To see certificate names, run 'certbot certificates'. When creating a new certificate, specifies the new certificate's name. (default: the first provided domain or the name of an existing certificate on your system for the same domains) --dry-run Perform a test run of the client, obtaining test (invalid) certificates but not saving them to disk. This can currently only be used with the 'certonly' and 'renew' subcommands. Note: Although --dry-run tries to avoid making any persistent changes on a system, it is not completely side-effect free: if used with webserver authenticator plugins like apache and nginx, it makes and then reverts temporary config changes in order to obtain test certificates, and reloads webservers to deploy and then roll back those changes. It also calls --pre-hook and --post-hook commands if they are defined because they may be necessary to accurately simulate renewal. --deploy- hook commands are not called. (default: False) --debug-challenges After setting up challenges, wait for user input before submitting to CA (default: False) --preferred-challenges PREF_CHALLS A sorted, comma delimited list of the preferred challenge to use during authorization with the most preferred challenge listed first (Eg, "dns" or "tls- sni-01,http,dns"). Not all plugins support all challenges. See https://certbot.eff.org/docs/using.html#plugins for details. ACME Challenges are versioned, but if you pick "http" rather than "http-01", Certbot will select the latest version automatically. (default: []) --user-agent USER_AGENT Set a custom user agent string for the client. User agent strings allow the CA to collect high level statistics about success rates by OS, plugin and use case, and to know when to deprecate support for past Python versions and flags. If you wish to hide this information from the Let's Encrypt server, set this to "". (default: CertbotACMEClient/0.25.1 (certbot(-auto); OS_NAME OS_VERSION) Authenticator/XXX Installer/YYY (SUBCOMMAND; flags: FLAGS) Py/major.minor.patchlevel). The flags encoded in the user agent are: --duplicate, --force-renew, --allow- subset-of-names, -n, and whether any hooks are set. --user-agent-comment USER_AGENT_COMMENT Add a comment to the default user agent string. May be used when repackaging Certbot or calling it from another tool to allow additional statistical data to be collected. Ignored if --user-agent is set. (Example: Foo-Wrapper/1.0) (default: None) automation: Flags for automating execution & other tweaks --keep-until-expiring, --keep, --reinstall If the requested certificate matches an existing certificate, always keep the existing one until it is due for renewal (for the 'run' subcommand this means reinstall the existing certificate). (default: Ask) --expand If an existing certificate is a strict subset of the requested names, always expand and replace it with the additional names. (default: Ask) --version show program's version number and exit --force-renewal, --renew-by-default If a certificate already exists for the requested domains, renew it now, regardless of whether it is near expiry. (Often --keep-until-expiring is more appropriate). Also implies --expand. (default: False) --renew-with-new-domains If a certificate already exists for the requested certificate name but does not match the requested domains, renew it now, regardless of whether it is near expiry. (default: False) --reuse-key When renewing, use the same private key as the existing certificate. (default: False) --allow-subset-of-names When performing domain validation, do not consider it a failure if authorizations can not be obtained for a strict subset of the requested domains. This may be useful for allowing renewals for multiple domains to succeed even if some domains no longer point at this system. This option cannot be used with --csr. (default: False) --agree-tos Agree to the ACME Subscriber Agreement (default: Ask) --duplicate Allow making a certificate lineage that duplicates an existing one (both can be renewed in parallel) (default: False) --os-packages-only (certbot-auto only) install OS package dependencies and then stop (default: False) --no-self-upgrade (certbot-auto only) prevent the certbot-auto script from upgrading itself to newer released versions (default: Upgrade automatically) --no-bootstrap (certbot-auto only) prevent the certbot-auto script from installing OS-level dependencies (default: Prompt to install OS-wide dependencies, but exit if the user says 'No') -q, --quiet Silence all output except errors. Useful for automation via cron. Implies --non-interactive. (default: False) security: Security parameters & server settings --rsa-key-size N Size of the RSA key. (default: 2048) --must-staple Adds the OCSP Must Staple extension to the certificate. Autoconfigures OCSP Stapling for supported setups (Apache version >= 2.3.3 ). (default: False) --redirect Automatically redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS for the newly authenticated vhost. (default: Ask) --no-redirect Do not automatically redirect all HTTP traffic to HTTPS for the newly authenticated vhost. (default: Ask) --hsts Add the Strict-Transport-Security header to every HTTP response. Forcing browser to always use SSL for the domain. Defends against SSL Stripping. (default: None) --uir Add the "Content-Security-Policy: upgrade-insecure- requests" header to every HTTP response. Forcing the browser to use https:// for every http:// resource. (default: None) --staple-ocsp Enables OCSP Stapling. A valid OCSP response is stapled to the certificate that the server offers during TLS. (default: None) --strict-permissions Require that all configuration files are owned by the current user; only needed if your config is somewhere unsafe like /tmp/ (default: False) testing: The following flags are meant for testing and integration purposes only. --test-cert, --staging Use the staging server to obtain or revoke test (invalid) certificates; equivalent to --server https ://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory (default: False) --debug Show tracebacks in case of errors, and allow certbot- auto execution on experimental platforms (default: False) --no-verify-ssl Disable verification of the ACME server's certificate. (default: False) --tls-sni-01-port TLS_SNI_01_PORT Port used during tls-sni-01 challenge. This only affects the port Certbot listens on. A conforming ACME server will still attempt to connect on port 443. (default: 443) --tls-sni-01-address TLS_SNI_01_ADDRESS The address the server listens to during tls-sni-01 challenge. (default: ) --http-01-port HTTP01_PORT Port used in the http-01 challenge. This only affects the port Certbot listens on. A conforming ACME server will still attempt to connect on port 80. (default: 80) --http-01-address HTTP01_ADDRESS The address the server listens to during http-01 challenge. (default: ) --break-my-certs Be willing to replace or renew valid certificates with invalid (testing/staging) certificates (default: False) paths: Flags for changing execution paths & servers --cert-path CERT_PATH Path to where certificate is saved (with auth --csr), installed from, or revoked. (default: None) --key-path KEY_PATH Path to private key for certificate installation or revocation (if account key is missing) (default: None) --fullchain-path FULLCHAIN_PATH Accompanying path to a full certificate chain (certificate plus chain). (default: None) --chain-path CHAIN_PATH Accompanying path to a certificate chain. (default: None) --config-dir CONFIG_DIR Configuration directory. (default: /etc/letsencrypt) --work-dir WORK_DIR Working directory. (default: /var/lib/letsencrypt) --logs-dir LOGS_DIR Logs directory. (default: /var/log/letsencrypt) --server SERVER ACME Directory Resource URI. (default: https://acme-v01.api.letsencrypt.org/directory) manage: Various subcommands and flags are available for managing your certificates: certificates List certificates managed by Certbot delete Clean up all files related to a certificate renew Renew all certificates (or one specified with --cert- name) revoke Revoke a certificate specified with --cert-path update_symlinks Recreate symlinks in your /etc/letsencrypt/live/ directory run: Options for obtaining & installing certificates certonly: Options for modifying how a certificate is obtained --csr CSR Path to a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) in DER or PEM format. Currently --csr only works with the 'certonly' subcommand. (default: None) renew: The 'renew' subcommand will attempt to renew all certificates (or more precisely, certificate lineages) you have previously obtained if they are close to expiry, and print a summary of the results. By default, 'renew' will reuse the options used to create obtain or most recently successfully renew each certificate lineage. You can try it with `--dry-run` first. For more fine-grained control, you can renew individual lineages with the `certonly` subcommand. Hooks are available to run commands before and after renewal; see https://certbot.eff.org/docs/using.html#renewal for more information on these. --pre-hook PRE_HOOK Command to be run in a shell before obtaining any certificates. Intended primarily for renewal, where it can be used to temporarily shut down a webserver that might conflict with the standalone plugin. This will only be called if a certificate is actually to be obtained/renewed. When renewing several certificates that have identical pre-hooks, only the first will be executed. (default: None) --post-hook POST_HOOK Command to be run in a shell after attempting to obtain/renew certificates. Can be used to deploy renewed certificates, or to restart any servers that were stopped by --pre-hook. This is only run if an attempt was made to obtain/renew a certificate. If multiple renewed certificates have identical post- hooks, only one will be run. (default: None) --deploy-hook DEPLOY_HOOK Command to be run in a shell once for each successfully issued certificate. For this command, the shell variable $RENEWED_LINEAGE will point to the config live subdirectory (for example, "/etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com") containing the new certificates and keys; the shell variable $RENEWED_DOMAINS will contain a space-delimited list of renewed certificate domains (for example, "example.com www.example.com" (default: None) --disable-hook-validation Ordinarily the commands specified for --pre-hook /--post-hook/--deploy-hook will be checked for validity, to see if the programs being run are in the $PATH, so that mistakes can be caught early, even when the hooks aren't being run just yet. The validation is rather simplistic and fails if you use more advanced shell constructs, so you can use this switch to disable it. (default: False) --no-directory-hooks Disable running executables found in Certbot's hook directories during renewal. (default: False) --disable-renew-updates Disable automatic updates to your server configuration that would otherwise be done by the selected installer plugin, and triggered when the user executes "certbot renew", regardless of if the certificate is renewed. This setting does not apply to important TLS configuration updates. (default: False) certificates: List certificates managed by Certbot delete: Options for deleting a certificate revoke: Options for revocation of certificates --reason {unspecified,keycompromise,affiliationchanged,superseded,cessationofoperation} Specify reason for revoking certificate. (default: unspecified) --delete-after-revoke Delete certificates after revoking them. (default: None) --no-delete-after-revoke Do not delete certificates after revoking them. This option should be used with caution because the 'renew' subcommand will attempt to renew undeleted revoked certificates. (default: None) register: Options for account registration & modification --register-unsafely-without-email Specifying this flag enables registering an account with no email address. This is strongly discouraged, because in the event of key loss or account compromise you will irrevocably lose access to your account. You will also be unable to receive notice about impending expiration or revocation of your certificates. Updates to the Subscriber Agreement will still affect you, and will be effective 14 days after posting an update to the web site. (default: False) --update-registration With the register verb, indicates that details associated with an existing registration, such as the e-mail address, should be updated, rather than registering a new account. (default: False) -m EMAIL, --email EMAIL Email used for registration and recovery contact. Use comma to register multiple emails, ex: [email protected],[email protected] (default: Ask). --eff-email Share your e-mail address with EFF (default: None) --no-eff-email Don't share your e-mail address with EFF (default: None) unregister: Options for account deactivation. --account ACCOUNT_ID Account ID to use (default: None) install: Options for modifying how a certificate is deployed config_changes: Options for controlling which changes are displayed --num NUM How many past revisions you want to be displayed (default: None) rollback: Options for rolling back server configuration changes --checkpoints N Revert configuration N number of checkpoints. (default: 1) plugins: Options for for the "plugins" subcommand --init Initialize plugins. (default: False) --prepare Initialize and prepare plugins. (default: False) --authenticators Limit to authenticator plugins only. (default: None) --installers Limit to installer plugins only. (default: None) update_symlinks: Recreates certificate and key symlinks in /etc/letsencrypt/live, if you changed them by hand or edited a renewal configuration file enhance: Helps to harden the TLS configuration by adding security enhancements to already existing configuration. plugins: Plugin Selection: Certbot client supports an extensible plugins architecture. See 'certbot plugins' for a list of all installed plugins and their names. You can force a particular plugin by setting options provided below. Running --help will list flags specific to that plugin. --configurator CONFIGURATOR Name of the plugin that is both an authenticator and an installer. Should not be used together with --authenticator or --installer. (default: Ask) -a AUTHENTICATOR, --authenticator AUTHENTICATOR Authenticator plugin name. (default: None) -i INSTALLER, --installer INSTALLER Installer plugin name (also used to find domains). (default: None) --apache Obtain and install certificates using Apache (default: False) --nginx Obtain and install certificates using Nginx (default: False) --standalone Obtain certificates using a "standalone" webserver. (default: False) --manual Provide laborious manual instructions for obtaining a certificate (default: False) --webroot Obtain certificates by placing files in a webroot directory. (default: False) --dns-cloudflare Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Cloudflare for DNS). (default: False) --dns-cloudxns Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using CloudXNS for DNS). (default: False) --dns-digitalocean Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using DigitalOcean for DNS). (default: False) --dns-dnsimple Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using DNSimple for DNS). (default: False) --dns-dnsmadeeasy Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you areusing DNS Made Easy for DNS). (default: False) --dns-google Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Google Cloud DNS). (default: False) --dns-luadns Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using LuaDNS for DNS). (default: False) --dns-nsone Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using NS1 for DNS). (default: False) --dns-ovh Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using OVH for DNS). (default: False) --dns-rfc2136 Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using BIND for DNS). (default: False) --dns-route53 Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Route53 for DNS). (default: False) apache: Apache Web Server plugin - Beta --apache-enmod APACHE_ENMOD Path to the Apache 'a2enmod' binary. (default: None) --apache-dismod APACHE_DISMOD Path to the Apache 'a2dismod' binary. (default: None) --apache-le-vhost-ext APACHE_LE_VHOST_EXT SSL vhost configuration extension. (default: -le- ssl.conf) --apache-server-root APACHE_SERVER_ROOT Apache server root directory. (default: /etc/apache2) --apache-vhost-root APACHE_VHOST_ROOT Apache server VirtualHost configuration root (default: None) --apache-logs-root APACHE_LOGS_ROOT Apache server logs directory (default: /var/log/apache2) --apache-challenge-location APACHE_CHALLENGE_LOCATION Directory path for challenge configuration. (default: /etc/apache2/other) --apache-handle-modules APACHE_HANDLE_MODULES Let installer handle enabling required modules for you. (Only Ubuntu/Debian currently) (default: False) --apache-handle-sites APACHE_HANDLE_SITES Let installer handle enabling sites for you. (Only Ubuntu/Debian currently) (default: False) certbot-route53:auth: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using AWS Route53 for DNS). --certbot-route53:auth-propagation-seconds CERTBOT_ROUTE53:AUTH_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 10) dns-cloudflare: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Cloudflare for DNS). --dns-cloudflare-propagation-seconds DNS_CLOUDFLARE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 10) --dns-cloudflare-credentials DNS_CLOUDFLARE_CREDENTIALS Cloudflare credentials INI file. (default: None) dns-cloudxns: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using CloudXNS for DNS). --dns-cloudxns-propagation-seconds DNS_CLOUDXNS_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 30) --dns-cloudxns-credentials DNS_CLOUDXNS_CREDENTIALS CloudXNS credentials INI file. (default: None) dns-digitalocean: Obtain certs using a DNS TXT record (if you are using DigitalOcean for DNS). --dns-digitalocean-propagation-seconds DNS_DIGITALOCEAN_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 10) --dns-digitalocean-credentials DNS_DIGITALOCEAN_CREDENTIALS DigitalOcean credentials INI file. (default: None) dns-dnsimple: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using DNSimple for DNS). --dns-dnsimple-propagation-seconds DNS_DNSIMPLE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 30) --dns-dnsimple-credentials DNS_DNSIMPLE_CREDENTIALS DNSimple credentials INI file. (default: None) dns-dnsmadeeasy: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using DNS Made Easy for DNS). --dns-dnsmadeeasy-propagation-seconds DNS_DNSMADEEASY_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 60) --dns-dnsmadeeasy-credentials DNS_DNSMADEEASY_CREDENTIALS DNS Made Easy credentials INI file. (default: None) dns-google: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using Google Cloud DNS for DNS). --dns-google-propagation-seconds DNS_GOOGLE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 60) --dns-google-credentials DNS_GOOGLE_CREDENTIALS Path to Google Cloud DNS service account JSON file. (See https://developers.google.com/identity/protocols/ OAuth2ServiceAccount#creatinganaccount forinformation about creating a service account and https://cloud.google.com/dns/access- control#permissions_and_roles for information about therequired permissions.) (default: None) dns-luadns: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using LuaDNS for DNS). --dns-luadns-propagation-seconds DNS_LUADNS_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 30) --dns-luadns-credentials DNS_LUADNS_CREDENTIALS LuaDNS credentials INI file. (default: None) dns-nsone: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using NS1 for DNS). --dns-nsone-propagation-seconds DNS_NSONE_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 30) --dns-nsone-credentials DNS_NSONE_CREDENTIALS NS1 credentials file. (default: None) dns-ovh: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using OVH for DNS). --dns-ovh-propagation-seconds DNS_OVH_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 30) --dns-ovh-credentials DNS_OVH_CREDENTIALS OVH credentials file. (default: None) dns-rfc2136: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using BIND for DNS). --dns-rfc2136-propagation-seconds DNS_RFC2136_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 60) --dns-rfc2136-credentials DNS_RFC2136_CREDENTIALS RFC 2136 credentials INI file. (default: None) dns-route53: Obtain certificates using a DNS TXT record (if you are using AWS Route53 for DNS). --dns-route53-propagation-seconds DNS_ROUTE53_PROPAGATION_SECONDS The number of seconds to wait for DNS to propagate before asking the ACME server to verify the DNS record. (default: 10) manual: Authenticate through manual configuration or custom shell scripts. When using shell scripts, an authenticator script must be provided. The environment variables available to this script depend on the type of challenge. $CERTBOT_DOMAIN will always contain the domain being authenticated. For HTTP-01 and DNS-01, $CERTBOT_VALIDATION is the validation string, and $CERTBOT_TOKEN is the filename of the resource requested when performing an HTTP-01 challenge. When performing a TLS- SNI-01 challenge, $CERTBOT_SNI_DOMAIN will contain the SNI name for which the ACME server expects to be presented with the self-signed certificate located at $CERTBOT_CERT_PATH. The secret key needed to complete the TLS handshake is located at $CERTBOT_KEY_PATH. An additional cleanup script can also be provided and can use the additional variable $CERTBOT_AUTH_OUTPUT which contains the stdout output from the auth script. --manual-auth-hook MANUAL_AUTH_HOOK Path or command to execute for the authentication script (default: None) --manual-cleanup-hook MANUAL_CLEANUP_HOOK Path or command to execute for the cleanup script (default: None) --manual-public-ip-logging-ok Automatically allows public IP logging (default: Ask) nginx: Nginx Web Server plugin --nginx-server-root NGINX_SERVER_ROOT Nginx server root directory. (default: /etc/nginx or /usr/local/etc/nginx) --nginx-ctl NGINX_CTL Path to the 'nginx' binary, used for 'configtest' and retrieving nginx version number. (default: nginx) null: Null Installer standalone: Spin up a temporary webserver webroot: Place files in webroot directory --webroot-path WEBROOT_PATH, -w WEBROOT_PATH public_html / webroot path. This can be specified multiple times to handle different domains; each domain will have the webroot path that preceded it. For instance: `-w /var/www/example -d example.com -d www.example.com -w /var/www/thing -d thing.net -d m.thing.net` (default: Ask) --webroot-map WEBROOT_MAP JSON dictionary mapping domains to webroot paths; this implies -d for each entry. You may need to escape this from your shell. E.g.: --webroot-map '{"eg1.is,m.eg1.is":"/www/eg1/", "eg2.is":"/www/eg2"}' This option is merged with, but takes precedence over, -w / -d entries. At present, if you put webroot-map in a config file, it needs to be on a single line, like: webroot-map = {"example.com":"/var/www"}. (default: {})

参考资料

-- EOF --

本文最后修改于2年前 (2018-09-18)

差评不太行一般挺好非常不错 (1 votes, average: 5.00 out of 5)
读取中...
发表我的评论
取消评论
表情

Hi,您需要填写昵称和邮箱!

  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址